27 Mar 2018
27 Mar 2018

How To Use A Fitness Journal And The Benefits Of Keeping One

We’ve all kept journals at some point in our lives. For some of us, it was a way of writing down thoughts, feelings, and emotions we had throughout the day. For others, it provided us an outlet for our creativity, giving us a way to express ourselves in a safe place. For many, it’s a place to note important information and details that we don’t want to forget.

Journals are, with doubt, a useful addition to your life. And that absolutely goes for a fitness journal as well!

Why should you keep a fitness journal? What’s so useful about writing down all the food you eat and the exercise you do? Below, you’ll find a (surprisingly long) list of the benefits of keeping a fitness journal, along with advice on how to keep on effectively. By the time you reach the end of this page, you’ll understand why a fitness journal can be your best friend on your weight lossand fitness journey…

Tip: When it comes to increasing strength, you might hear the phrase "progressive resistance." This means "do more work as time goes on" -- lift heavier weights or do more reps of the same exercise to see results. Keep yourself on the path to success with a workout journal. Research shows that those who record their progress are more compliant and see better results than those who wing it.

Benefits of Keeping a Fitness Journal

Here are the benefits of logging all your information into a fitness journal:

Accountability. It’s so easy to think, “This little snack won’t hurt. It’s just a bite.” But that mentality is actually going to get you into A LOT of trouble!

For the average dieter, your food intake has to be pretty carefully calculated. You want to make sure to get the right balance of macro and micronutrients, and you need to be careful not to overdo it on the calories. With a fitness journal, you are accountable to yourself, and you will see every time you make the wrong choice.

The fact that you’re writing it down means it’s on your “permanent record.” You’ll be far less likely to cheat on your diet simply because you’ll know that you did. You’ll hold yourself to a much higher standard as a result!

Precision. It’s amazing how much you actually end up eating in a day! Most of the time, you have no idea how much you actually ate. Maybe you forgot about that handful of chips you snagged from a friend or the little snack you had on your way out of the house. Or you didn’t add the tablespoon of oil you used to cook your breakfast. Or any number of other things…

With a fitness journal, you log ALL your food intake for the day. Keeping a fitness journal forces you to think carefully about what you ate all day long, and you can see exactly what you put into your body. You’ll soon come to see where your weaknesses are, and you can take steps to correct your eating habits.

Track Progress. The one thing that’s going to stop you from losing weight is a discouragement. If you don’t see the progress you were hoping for, you’re much more likely to feel that you’re wasting your time on your training and dieting–thus, you’ll have a hard time keeping up with the diet or exercise program.

But that’s where a fitness journal is so handy! As you track your weight loss, your strength gains, and your increasing run times, you’ll see that you’re making real, quantifiable progress. Sure, it’s slower than you’d hoped, but at least it’s there. You’ll be far more motivated to keep up with your efforts so you can continue to see that progress.

Provides a Goal. Without a vision, the people perish! We all need a goal, something to strive for. If you don’t have a specific objective in mind but just want to “get in shape,” you’re going to have a much harder time actually reaching your goal.

A fitness journal helps you to come up with a clear, well-defined objective. It could be some pounds (20 pounds), a time frame (6 months), or even an end-by date (my wedding). Heck, you can even commit to keeping up with your diet and exercise habits until the diary pages are all filled. All that matters is that you have a goal to work toward. Your fitness journal will give you something to focus on, making it easier for you to stick with it even when the progress slows.

Consistency. Consistency is the best way to build healthy habits. It’s not easy to start eating healthy or working out every day, but if you know you have to write it down in your journal, you’re far less likely to bail.

Make it a habit of filling out your journal at the end of every day, and it will provide you with a time to reflect on how you did that day. Every day, you’ll think about your successes and failures, and you’ll write it in your journal. As the day’s pass, you’ll start to see more successes than failures, which will encourage you to keep going. That consistency is the key to forming the habit of eating and living a healthy life–and using your journal to track it!

Change. With a fitness journal, you can see the results your efforts are yielding, so you can know when it’s time to change things up.

The human body is designed to adapt to your diet and exercise program. After a few weeks of a certain diet, the body adjusts to meet the reduced or altered calorie intake. The same goes for your exercise program. To keep the weight loss moving, you have to change up your exercise program at the very least, if not your diet.

But how can you know when it’s time to change? Simple: you look over your fitness journal to see your progress for the last weeks/months. When you see that progress has slowed, it’s time to consider doing something different. It’s just that easy! Thanks to the fact that you’re writing everything down in your journal, you can check out your progress and realize when it’s time to change.

As you can see, a fitness journal can be your best friend, and it can help you to be more effective in your diet, exercise program, and weight loss efforts. If you want to make the most of your new lifestyle truly, it’s a good idea to start keeping a fitness journal.

How to Keep a Fitness Journal

So you want to start keeping a fitness journal, eh? Good for you! Let’s dive right into how you can keep your journal. First up, the “where”…

Where to Keep Your Fitness Journal

There are three simple options for your fitness journal:

Physical Journal. There’s something beautifully elegant about a proper journal and a fancy pen. If you don’t want a journal, why not try a notebook, an exercise book, or even a scrapbook? Anything that helps you to write it down.

Smartphone. You can find A LOT of fitness tracker and fitness journal apps on your smartphone (iOS and Android)! These apps are designed to make it easy for you to keep track of your daily eating and exercise habits. They provide you with a lot of tools, but they can also be a bit more limited.

Computer. You can build yourself a spreadsheet in Microsoft Excel or Google Sheets, or download a computer program (like FitDay) that is designed for tracking your daily exercise and food intake. You can join a forum or website or even create your own personal blog to keep up with your fitness.

Find the method that works best for you–the one that is easiest to remember to do on a daily basis!

So we have the “where,” and it’s time to move onto the “what”…

What to Include in Your Fitness Journal

There are two very important elements you need to track in your fitness journal:

  • Exercise
  • Diet

You can add in lifestyle factors if you want, but it’s these two elements that really matter!

Exercise. When tracking exercise, you should include information like:

  • How much time you spent working out
  • What you did (resistance training, cardio, walking, sports, outdoor activity, etc.)

If you want to get into it really, you can calculate the number of calories burned and even break down your training volume (weight used x reps x sets). You can get as detailed as you want with the exercise information. In fact, the more detailed you get, the easier it will be to see the progress you are making with your weight lifting, running, cardio classes, cycling, or other training.

Food. This is DEFINITELY the most important part of your fitness journal. You need to keep track of everything you eat, as that’s the only way you can be sure exactly what you’re putting in your body!

How much detail do you need to add? That’s up to you.

  • Some people like to break their meals down into a list of ingredients. That way, they can calculate how many calories each of those ingredients contained, and they can get a clear understanding of how many calories they consumed that day.
  • Others prefer to “round off,” using the calorie counter provided by their app or computer program to help them estimate the rough number of calories they ate that day.

What matters most is that you take all the little “extras” into account as well. For example, did you add a tablespoon of oil into the pan to cook your eggs? Add it to the list! Did you grab a snack on your way out to work? Add it! Did you steal half a cookie or eat a handful of potato chips or pretzels? Write it down!

The reason you want to write EVERYTHING down is that it will help you to see your weak areas. As you go over your journal, you can look back at the last days and see what “no-no foods” slipped into your day. You’ll see the foods that trigger you to snack or eat more, and you can make plans to help you avoid or resist that temptation.

If you put it in your mouth, write it into your journal! The more detailed your list, the easier it is to see what you ate–and you’ll have a more accurate calorie count.

When to Update Your Fitness Journal

Now that you know what to put in your journal, you may be wondering when to write it down. The answer is easy: EVERY DARNED DAY!

The only way to ensure maximum accuracy in your journal is to take notes on a daily basis. You can write in your fitness journal after every meal or in the evenings–whatever helps you to be as accurate as possible. Be as thorough as you can, and make sure to note down everything that you do that day. Whether you hit that workout hard and ate like a champ or skipped training to watch TV with a large pizza, write it down!

But here’s another important thing to remember: go over the journal. Every week, go over the journal and see where you failed. Don’t let it get you down, but use it to motivate you to do better the next week.

Do this, and you’ll get the results you want!

A fitness journal can be your best friend when it comes to weight loss. Not only will it help you to stay accountable for everything you eat and do every day, but it will give you the motivation to keep going. Even if you don’t see drastic results right away, your fitness journal can encourage you that your diet and workout program really is working. It just takes time!




21 Mar 2018
21 Mar 2018

Leucine is an essential amino acid, meaning it cannot be made by the body, and must be acquired through food or dietary supplements. Leucine is classified as a branched-chain amino acid (BCAA).

By itself, Leucine can stimulate muscle protein synthesis, the process responsible for muscle growth and recovery.  Therefore it is often referred to as the “main” amino acid.

Leucine is thought to be the most effective BCAA for preventing the body’s burning of muscle stores for energy during intense workouts because it is converted to glucose more quickly than isoleucine and valine.

L-Leucine stimulates muscle protein synthesis and may be the major fuel involved in anabolic (tissue building) reactions. This makes it especially important for body builders and other athletes in sports that demand explosive strength.

Supplementation with at least 2 grams of daily Leucine has been shown to decrease muscle soreness, lessen recovery time between workouts, and increase lean muscle mass.


14 Mar 2018
14 Mar 2018

Whether you simply want to be a proud Australian supporting local Aussie business, you’re a coffee connoisseur or you are looking to optimise both your mental performance and your health, Before You Speak High Performance Coffee is exactly what you’re looking for.

  • Increase Mental Clarity
  • Reduce Inflammation
  • Support Fat Loss

Utilising some of the highest quality single origin Columbian Arabica coffee alongside a sachet packed full of natural antioxidants, Before You Speak have created a unique performance-enhancing coffee unlike anything on the market.

  • Get the edge on your competitors…
  • Reduce the stressors we all suffer from…
  • Maximise your health with antioxidants…

Did you know that we get more antioxidants from coffee on a serve to serve ratio compared to any other food?

Coffee truly is amazing for us!

So whether you like your coffee cold over ice, piping hot straight out of the kettle or mixed with your favourite milk or milk alternative, before you even say your first word in the morning, take a sip of this performance coffee and reap the rewards it offers.

Key Ingredients

Single Origin Columbian Arabica Beans

Caffeine has long been proven to act as both a physical and mental performance enhancer but what people don’t realise is how amazing it is for your health as well. Consuming caffeine daily has been shown to have acute benefits for raising your metabolism, may improve insulin sensitivity and has also been linked to minimising visceral fat gain (organ fat) in those consuming calories in excess of their requirements.

Siberian Ginseng

Siberian Ginseng is known as an adaptogen and has been shown to regulate cortisol, reduce systemic stress and provides long-lasting energy, mental alertness and an improved sense of well being.


Tumeric is a SUPER SPICE! Supplementing with turmeric has been linked to improved blood glucose regulation and gut health but most noticeably, the active curcuminoids in turmeric have been clinically shown to reduce inflammation and improve pain thresholds in those suffering from inflammatory diseases.

Medium Chain Triglycerides (MCT)

MCT’s are easily converted to ketones within the body, helping support and regulate appetite as well as improve mental clarity, be used for energy in the absence of carbohydrates and they also contain fewer calories per gram than normal fats with a low affinity to being stored as subcutaneous fat.

Green Coffee Extract

Green Coffee Extract helps support blood sugar regulation, provides some additional natural caffeine and has been linked to reducing hunger.

Black Peppercorn

Utilising BioPerine, which is a patented black pepper extract, BioPerine enhances the absorption and assimilation capacity of other nutrients and may also support a mild increase in metabolic performance as well.

Final thoughts

As you can see, Before You Speak Performance Coffee is packed with natural antioxidants and has not only been designed to give you that mental caffeine kick we have all come to love but it also supports long-term health through improved immunity, reduced systemic inflammation and reduced stress.

Buy it here!

06 Mar 2018
06 Mar 2018

5 Variations Of Avocado Toast

There’s a good reason why avocado has become such a staple for many people. It takes a plain piece of toast to new heights, it provides our body with some healthy fats that help to keep you feeling full, and it’s super easy to make it fancy. It’s not just fantastic as a topping for a healthy sushi bowl, avocado is perfect for a quick toast topper that helps you to power your morning. 

If you’re a fan of avocado on toast, then you’re in luck! These five avocado toast variations are perfect for weekend brunch. 

Avocado Toast with Dukkah

Ingredients (makes 1 serve):
2 slices sourdough bread or bread of choice
½ medium avocado
Fresh lemon juice, to taste

¼ cup (40g) hazelnuts
¼ cup (40g) pistachio kernels
1 tbsp white sesame seeds
1 tbsp coriander seeds
1 tbsp cumin seeds
½ tsp sea salt
½ tsp ground black pepper

1. To make the dukkah, heat a non-stick fry pan over medium heat. Once hot, add the hazelnuts and cook for 5-10 minutes or until fragrant and lightly toasted, tossing the pan occasionally. Transfer to a bowl and set aside to cool.

2. Add the pistachio kernels and cook for 5-10 minutes or until fragrant and lightly toasted, tossing the pan occasionally. Transfer to the bowl containing the hazelnuts and set aside to cool.

3. Add the sesame seeds, coriander seeds and cumin seeds and cook for 1-3 minutes or until fragrant and lightly toasted, tossing the pan occasionally. Transfer to the bowl containing the nuts and set aside to cool. 

4. Place the cooled nuts, seeds, salt and pepper in a mortar and grind into a coarse powder with the pestle. Alternatively, you can use a spice grinder or food processor, but make sure not to over-process and create a nut paste.

5. Place the avocado in a small bowl and roughly mash using a fork. Add some lemon juice to taste and stir to combine. 

6. Toast the bread to your liking. 

7. To serve, spread the mashed avocado over the toasted sourdough. Sprinkle over some of the dukkah and serve.

*Remaining dukkah can be stored in an airtight container in the refrigerator for up to a month.

Goat’s Cheese and Avocado Toast

Ingredients (makes 1 serve):
½ medium avocado
fresh lemon juice, to taste
1 slice sourdough bread 
30g goat’s cheese, crumbled
olive oil, to drizzle
chilli flakes, to taste
sea salt, to taste

1. Place the avocado in a small bowl and roughly mash using a fork. Add some lemon juice to taste and gently stir to combine. 

2. Toast the bread to your liking. 

3. To serve, spread the mashed avocado over the toasted sourdough and top with the crumbled goat’s cheese. Drizzle with olive oil and sprinkle with chilli flakes and season with salt, if desired.

Avocado, Mango, Mint and Chilli on Toast

Ingredients (makes 1 serve):
1 slice sourdough bread
½ medium avocado
6 slices mango, or enough to cover the surface of the bread
fresh lemon juice, to taste
chilli powder, to taste
freshly chopped mint leaves, for garnish

1. Place the avocado in a small bowl and roughly mash using a fork.

2. Toast the bread to your liking. Spread the mashed avocado over the toasted sourdough.

3. Arrange the sliced mango over the avocado and squeeze over some lemon juice, to taste. Dust with chilli powder and garnish with chopped mint.

Avocado, Ricotta, Basil and Lemon Zest on Toast

Ingredients (makes 1 serve):
½ medium avocado
fresh lemon juice, to taste
1 slice sourdough bread
100g ricotta cheese
olive oil, to drizzle
4-5 basil leaves, finely sliced
zest of ½ lemon
sea salt and ground black pepper, to taste

1. Place the avocado in a small bowl and roughly mash using a fork. Add some lemon juice to taste and gently stir to combine. 

2. Toast the bread to your liking.

3. To serve, spread the mashed avocado over the toasted sourdough and top with dollops of ricotta. Drizzle with olive oil and sprinkle over the basil and lemon zest. Season with salt and pepper, if desired.

Avocado and Roasted Tomato Toast

Ingredients (makes 1 serve):
2 slices sourdough or bread of choice
125g cherry truss tomatoes 
1 tsp olive oil, plus extra to drizzle
1 tsp balsamic vinegar
sea salt and ground black pepper, to taste
1 ripe avocado
30g feta cheese, crumbled
2 tsp lemon juice
2 basil leaves, finely sliced
1 small handful rocket leaves

1. Preheat the oven to 200°C (390°F) and line a baking tray with baking paper. Place the tomatoes on the lined baking tray and drizzle with the oil and balsamic vinegar. Season with salt and pepper, if desired. Roast in the oven for 15-20 minutes or until tender.

2. Place the avocado in a small bowl and roughly mash using a fork. Add the feta, lemon juice, basil leaves, salt, pepper and mix until well combined.

3. Toast the bread to your liking.

4. To serve, place the toast on a serving plate and spread over the avocado mixture. Top with the rocket, tomatoes and a drizzle of olive oil. 



06 Mar 2018
06 Mar 2018

Balancing Your Training With Rest Days

Why are rest days important? How many rest days should you have? Do you really need to have a rest day? 

These are questions you might have heard, or that you might have even asked yourself. When you’re trying to achieve physical results or to make progress, it might seem as though rest days are a waste of your valuable time. Trust us, they aren’t. 

Rest days are an essential part of any training program, regardless of whether your preference is weight training, high-intensity workouts or marathon running. These are a few reasons why it’s so important to balance your training with rest. 

What are rest days? 

A rest day is a day where you take a complete break from training and allow your body some time to recover. Rest days are an important part of your overall recovery plan, alongside rehabilitation. If you want better results from the gym, you better believe rest days are part of that plan!

Why are rest days so important

It might sound strange, but rest days are often when your body does a lot of work! This is the time when your body begins to replenish its stores of energy and when it gets to work repairing tissue used during your workouts — particularly your muscles. Your body then has time to heal this tissue and to help it grow bigger and stronger. 

You might get tempted to skip your rest day, especially when you’re so focused on achieving your goals. But think of it this way — when you’re really tired, you struggle to do things you could normally do quite easily, right? It’s a similar principle. If your body is physically tired, you might notice increased muscle soreness or a decrease in your performance. Take that as a sign you need to R-E-S-T!

Having a rest day also gives you a chance to have a mental break from training, something we may not always prioritise. 

How often should you rest?

This is a great question, unfortunately, the answer isn’t quite straightforward. It can depend on your fitness level — for example, beginners may need to prioritise rest days slightly more than those who have been working out for some time. Some exercise programs are more physically demanding than others, and everyone’s fitness level and body will be slightly different. It’s all about balancing your training and having rest days as well! 

In the SWEAT app, for example, each program balances resistance sessions with some cardio and rehabilitation sessions. You’ll notice that all programs have recommended rehabilitation sessions and rest days to allocate in your planner!

At the very least, we would recommend allocating yourself one day of rest per week. Now, rest day doesn’t have to mean laying on the couch, doing absolutely nothing but snacking and binge-watching (unless that’s what you want). You may prefer to have active rest days

What are active rest days?

An active rest day means doing some light activity in place of your normal training. You might like to take a slow walk, do a gentle yoga class (restorative or Hatha-style yoga can be great) or take your dog to the park. How active you want to be can really depend on how intense your training is, and how you feel that your body is holding up. 

When you’re trying to balance training with rest, it is really important to pay attention to your body. It will tell you if you’re overdoing it and you need to slow down. Fatigue, aching muscles and a loss of appetite can all be a sign that you might be overtraining. Slow it down a bit and take those cues your body is giving you. Keep doing your rehabilitation and foam rolling sessions and remember that rest is never wasted time!

Results may vary. Strict adherence to the nutrition and exercise guide are required for best results.


02 Mar 2018
02 Mar 2018

Did Somebody Say Cookies?

Comments| Posted in Nutrition, by David Schmitt

Need a protein shake that can help curb that sweet tooth?  Want cookies without the calories?  Whip up a Giant Sports Chocolate Oatmeal Cookie Protein Shake!

  • 8 oz. unsweetened almond milk
  • 1 scoop Giant 100% Whey Chocolate protein powder
  • ½ cup Old Fashioned Oats
  • 1 ½ teaspoons cinnamon
  • 1 teaspoon vanilla extract
  • Ice

Blend all ingredients with ice & enjoy!!


02 Mar 2018
02 Mar 2018

5 Non-Traditional Proteins That Break The Breakfast Mold

For stronger, bigger muscles and a trim waistline you need breakfast protein, period. Eggs are full of protein, but so are these next-level meals. Tomorrow morning, try something new!

5 Non-Traditional Proteins That Break The Breakfast Mold

When you're transforming your physique, you need lots of protein first thing in the morning. We all get stuck in ruts and equate "breakfast protein" with eggs, maybe yogurt, maybe protein powder. Next time, instead of sticking with those same old breakfast standbys, get your protein from other sources. The following five selections will give your taste buds a break; they'll also do a better job of building muscle and helping you stay lean than carb-filled meals.[1,2] They can even help you feel more full for longer so you can avoid those empty snack calories.

1. Bring On The Smoked-Salmon Toast

Your morning slice of toast can be a platform for much more than just butter. To up your game—and your protein—lay on some delicious smoked salmon to get about 17 grams of protein in a single-ounce serving. The salmon will also provide a good dose of heart-healthy omega-3 fatty acids, something many of us don't get enough of.

Recent evidence suggests that higher intakes of omega-3s can promote a greater diversity of beneficial bacteria in your gut. These extra microbes can have wide-ranging health benefits, from promoting normal digestive functioning to supporting a healthy immune system.[3]

Bring On the Smoked-Salmon Toast

For a meatier texture, look for whole smoked-salmon fillets instead of the more common thinly sliced variety. If you want to start off your day with a taste explosion, stir together whipped cream cheese, honey, minced fresh ginger, and lemon zest. Spread this mixture on toasted whole-grain bread and top with chunks of smoked salmon and chopped chives.

2. Change Up Cold Cereal With Hemp Seeds

Cereal is handy, but out of the box, it's not exactly what you might call a protein powerhouse. Adding milk helps, but you can easily bump up the protein count by sprinkling on hemp seeds. Also called hemp hearts, these nutty-tasting seeds provide about 6 grams of protein in a 2-tablespoon serving.

Change Up Cold Cereal With Hemp Seeds

Hemp also contains a full arsenal of the essential amino acids your muscles crave. As a nutritional perk, they also supply notable amounts of omega fatty acids and magnesium, a mineral linked to promoting normal cardiovascular health.[4] Researchers have discovered that the amount of protein found in hemp far exceeds the amounts found in other plant foods, such as grains, nuts, and legumes.[5]

3. Top Your Oatmeal With Turkey Bacon

Cooked oats are yet another great way to start the day. You can make them even better by topping off your bowl with pieces of crispy turkey bacon. Generally lower in fat calories than its piggy counterpart, turkey bacon will add about 3 extra grams of muscle-building protein per slice, as well as some bone-friendly phosphorus.

For a surprisingly tasty morning meal, add chopped walnuts, apple, or pear to the bacon. Or go savory by adding sliced sun-dried tomato and shaved parmesan.

Top Your Oatmeal With Turkey Bacon

You don't even need to break out the frying pan and splatter shield to cook the bacon. Sandwich a few turkey bacon slices between layers of paper towel and place on a microwave-safe plate. Microwave the bacon on high for about 1 minute per slice. Turkey bacon can dry out faster than regular bacon, so check it often to make sure it reaches the right consistency.

Once the bacon is done, let it rest a couple minutes to crisp up. Read your nutrition labels to find out which turkey bacon brands have the lowest amounts of sodium.

4. Make Eggs Dishes Spectacular With Goat Cheese

A touch of tangy goat cheese can transform basic scrambled eggs into a creamy delight that you'll want to jump out of bed for. A nice bonus is the 5 grams of high-quality dairy protein each ounce of the cheese adds to the already protein-rich eggs. And because soft goat cheese contains more moisture than hard cheeses like cheddar, it tends to be less calorie dense. Simply stir some crumbled soft goat cheese and chopped herbs into beaten eggs and cook in a skillet, stirring frequently. This dish is suitable for any meal.

Make Eggs Dishes Spectacular With Goat Cheese

5. Put Peanut Butter In Your Pancakes

A stack of pancakes can be a weekend treat, but since they're made up of mostly flour and maple syrup, they're pretty much a carb bomb. Trade in some of those carbs for protein by replacing wheat flour with peanut butter powder. The powder is made by squeezing the oils out of roasted peanuts, then grinding them into a nutty flour. The finished product adds about 6 grams of protein per 2-tablespoon serving.

Put Peanut Butter in Your Pancakes

Replace a quarter of the regular flour you use with peanut butter powder, or use the powder to make a delicious flapjack topping. For the topping, place 2-3 tablespoons of peanut butter powder in a small bowl and whisk in milk, 1 tablespoon at a time, until you reach the desired consistency. For added flavor, add some cinnamon and vanilla extract to the topping. A great way to start any day!


  1. Leidy, H. J., Gwin, J. A., Roenfeldt, C. A., Zino, A. Z., & Shafer, R. S. (2016). Evaluating the intervention-based evidence surrounding the causal role of breakfast on markers of weight management, with specific focus on breakfast composition and sizeAdvances in Nutrition: An International Review Journal, 7(3), 563S-575S.
  2. Leidy, H. J., Tang, M., Armstrong, C. L., Martin, C. B., & Campbell, W. W. (2011). The effects of consuming frequent, higher protein meals on appetite and satiety during weight loss in overweight/obese menObesity, 19(4), 818-824.
  3. Menni, C., Zierer, J., Pallister, T., Jackson, M. A., Long, T., Mohney, R. P., ... & Valdes, A. M. (2017). Omega-3 fatty acids correlate with gut microbiome diversity and production of N-carbamylglutamate in middle aged and elderly womenScientific Reports, 7(1), 11079.
  4. Kass, L., Weekes, J., & Carpenter, L. (2012). Effect of magnesium supplementation on blood pressure: a meta-analysisEuropean Journal of Clinical Nutrition, 66(4), 411.
  5. House, J. D., Neufeld, J., & Leson, G. (2010). Evaluating the quality of protein from hemp seed (Cannabis sativa L.) products through the use of the protein digestibility-corrected amino acid score methodJournal of Agricultural and Food Chemistry, 58(22), 11801-11807.


Matthew Kadey, MS, RD

Matthew Kadey, MS, RD

Matthew Kadey, MSc., is a registered dietitian based in Waterloo, Ontario, Canada. He works full-time as a freelance nutrition writer...

02 Mar 2018
02 Mar 2018

Good Fats VS Bad Fats

Comments| Posted in Nutrition, by David Schmitt

Sometimes it’s easy to just categories things as good or bad. Good cholesterol – Bad cholesterol. Good people – Bad people. Other times it’s not so black or white and the lines are blurred into grey. This is true when it comes to fats.

In the past we haven’t been told the whole story.  In fact, if you haven’t looked for the answers then it’s easy to continue believing that all poly and mono-unsaturated fat is good and all saturated fat is bad. The TRUTH is more complicated!!

Not all poly and mono unsaturated fats are good and not all saturated fats are bad. So, what do we need to look for and where do you look for the TRUTH?



Let’s take a deep dive into the world of fats, starting with mono and poly unsaturated fats. Historically, mono and polyunsaturated fats have been painted as the heart healthy fats that Mediterranean people consume and live long energy rich lives. Monounsaturated fats are most commonly found in olive oil, almonds, pecans, cashews and avocados. These are generally cold pressed and liquid at room temperature. They have low levels of poly-unsaturated fats so are relatively stable. By stable, we mean they don’t oxidise or go rancid as easily as polyunsaturated oils. However, I would still recommend you keep them in a dark glass bottle or BPA-free can in a cool pantry. Do not keep them on the kitchen bench. The oils listed above that are monounsaturated are good choices. Note: Oxidised/rancid oils are toxic and are linked to inflammation and other health issues.

Canola oil is what we would call a modified mono-unsaturated fat. Canola oil doesn’t actually come from a canola plant. It comes from a genetically modified rapeseed plant that has been created to contain low levels of a toxin called ‘Eruric Acid.’ Eruric acid found in rapeseed is poisonous to a point that it can cause blistering of the lungs and skin. It is for this reason rapeseed was banned for sale in the US in 1956. However, over a period of 20 years the food industry was working to create a cheaper oil like olive oil. They discovered a way through GMO, selective breeding and highly processing rapeseed they could achieve a similar mono unsaturated ratio to olive oil. Unfortunately, all the processes like bleaching, hydrogenation, dewaxing, emulsification etc. leave it highly oxidised and potentially toxic. Also, rapeseed wasn’t very appealing so they decided to call it canola oil. This is not the best choice. ☹

Comparison of fats



Polyunsaturated fats are less stable than their monounsaturated counterparts. This means they are likely to be more oxidised or damaged and may cause more harm than good. Polyunsaturated fats are found in corn, cottonseed, soybean and flaxseed. These oils should be limited where possible. Although flaxseed is probably the exception as it contains a healthier polyunsaturated fat called alpha-linolenic acid. It should still be kept in a dark glass bottle and preferably in the fridge with the lid on tight.


Then we have saturated fats. The spawn of the devil. Made out to be a chronic killer and the main cause of heart disease that would plague our planet. A theory called the lipid hypothesis put forward by Ancel Keys in the 70’s demonising saturated fat stuck like glue for many decades and still has a grasp on some folk today. Although his theory has now been disproven, it helped set a low-fat policy in the 1970’s that saw us consuming 7-11 serves of starchy carbohydrates per day. It created an industry for low fat everything and any fats used or consumed were to be poly and monounsaturated.

The truth couldn’t be more polarising. In fact, for the better part of 2 million years or whenever homo sapiens branched away from homo erectus we have been eating saturated fat. We not only survived on saturated fat but we thrived on it. Saturated fat was more stable and easier to acquire than mono and polyunsaturated fats which often required processing. In fact, one could argue that our population has become plagued by escalating chronic disease since we started reducing fat and especially saturated fat.

Let’s see if you were paying attention. This means we accumulate more fat, to hold onto toxins. So, if we eliminate toxins we lose body fat easier.

So, what saturated fat is good and what is bad?

Let’s start with animal fats. Animal fats are a reliable source of saturated fat if the animal is healthy. This means it was raised on its native diet preferably in the wild or at least in a clean stress free environment. When we are toxic, we store toxins we can’t eliminate in our fat tissue. Animals do the same. So, if you eat the fat from a toxic (unhealthy) animal you consume their toxins also. This applies to butter as well.

Vegetable sourced saturated fat like coconut oil & palm oil are great choices if they are cold pressed extra virgin oils. Make sure there is no discolouration and try to find an oil that is kept in a BPA (Biosphenol A) free plastic container or glass jar. BPA is a petrochemical that has been linked to inflammation, hormone dysregulation, mood irregularities and weight gain.

NOTE: Saturated fats generally have a higher smoke point so are good for cooking with where mono and polyunsaturated fats are generally better used as salad dressings etc.


Every cell in your body has a lipid lining so the requirement for fat is essential. There are many benefits to a ketogenic (low carb and high fat) diet. In fact, ketosis (a natural state of burning fat in the absence of carbohydrates) has been used for decades to treat serious health conditions. These include Epilepsy, Alzheimer’s, Dementia, Parkinson’s and now Cancer and Diabetes.

Some of the noticeable side benefits of a Ketogenic or lower carb higher fat diet (if done correctly) are reduced body fat, lower inflammation, improved energy, better sleep, elevated mood, improved mental cognition and greater hunger control.

Ketogenic diets can be hard to maintain as they are different to our standard way of living, so an alternative approach is a lower carb Intermittent Fasting (IF) approach (See IF article here). This kind of approach works well with the addition of coconut oil or MCT oil and Exogenous Ketones like those found in KETO SWITCH™.

Exogenous ketones will help upregulate your metabolism and enhance your ability to use your own ketones (stored fat) as fuel. They also make it easier to stave off that hunger while fasting and/or low carb.

Even if you don’t use ketones, you might want to try increasing your fat intake while simultaneously lowering your carbohydrates. This approach has been shown time and time again to help reduce bodyfat and improve metabolic health.

Consider choosing the following fats…

  • Coconut Oil
  • Grass Fed Butter
  • MCT Oil
  • Olive Oil
  • Avocado Oil
  • Macadamia Oil
  • Fish Oil
  • Grass Fed Bacon Fat
  • Almond Oil
  • Walnut Oil
  • Flaxseed and Chia Oil
  • Hemp Oil
  • Ghee
  • Grass Fed Lard
  • Sunflower Oil


Fats are not inherently good or bad but where you get them from, how you treat them, store them and use them can make a difference. Adding fat into your diet is often well received by your body provided you simultaneously reduce your carbohydrates at the same time. However, remember your long-term health and wellness goals will only be achievable if your nutrition plan is maintainable. This means you should make minor changes in steps that you can stick with and that are not to fundamentally different. Fats are essential for life and for health so be sure to choose fats that are going to help, not harm.

Switch Nutrition Disclaimer: The above article is merely a guide and opinion. It is in no way a recommendation or a treatment protocol for any health conditions or diseases. You should always consult with a qualified health care provider before changing your supplement, training or nutritional strategy. Supplementation should only be attempted by pregnant or breastfeeding women, anyone on prescription medication or children under the age of 15 when advised and monitored by your qualified health care provider.

14 Feb 2018
14 Feb 2018


Image result for interval training

The road to a leaner body isn't a long, slow march. It's bursts of high-intensity effort paired with slower, recovery efforts. Fifteen to 20 minutes of interval training performed like this can burn as many calories as an hour of traditional, steady-state cardio. And unlike the slow stuff, intervals can keep your body burning long after the workout ends.

But wait, don’t confuse interval training with circuit training. Circuit training is moving from station to station to complete a set of exercises. Circuit training can be all aerobic exercise, all strength training, or alternating between cardio efforts and strength training. “Many people mistakenly call this interval training when, in fact, it is a circuit,” Crews says.

When you’re circuit training, you don’t rest between the exercises that you do in sequence. When you’re interval training, you want to take short rests between intense repetitions of a single exercise.

How Interval Training Helps

Adding interval training to your fitness program has both mental and physical benefits:

You lose weight faster. The more vigorous your exercise, the more calories you will burn, so even short bursts will help you lose weight.

It eliminates boredom. By varying the intensity of your exercises, it changes things up. Not only will your fitness program go by faster, but you won’t experience the drudgery that can come from doing the same routine every day.




14 Feb 2018
14 Feb 2018


Iron Deficiency

Iron is an essential mineral involved in many enzyme functions needed for energy production, healthy metabolism, support overall cellular health and to maintain general wellbeing.

Iron is needed to produce a protein in our body called haemoglobin which is found in red blood cells. Haemoglobin carries oxygen from your lungs and transports it throughout your body supplying oxygen to your brain, tissues, muscles and cells. When we have, insufficient iron levels our bodies cannot produce enough haemoglobin and therefore we starve our body of oxygen which is also known as anaemia.

What are the symptoms of iron deficiencies?

Iron deficiency anaemia is when haemoglobin levels are so low that the blood is unable to carry oxygen to the cells making us feel fatigued and low energy. Naturopath’s look for koilonychia as a sign of anaemia which you can look for right now to determine if you may have iron deficiency. Koilonychia is also known as spooning of the nails which are flat or concaved nail beds and is accompanied with thin nails. Ridges in the nail (vertical lines) can indicate low stomach acid and therefore impacts the assimilation of iron and other essential vitamins and nutrients.

Other signs and symptoms are:

• Chronic fatigue
• Restless legs, inability to stop moving
• Pale skin
• Shortness of breath
• Hormonal imbalances
• Yawning whilst exercising
• Muscle soreness
• Low appetite
• Poor sleep quality
• Poor concentration, learning difficulties
• Sores on mouth and tongue
• Mood changes
• Spooned thumb nails
• Heart palpitations
• Low blood pressure
• Dizziness, fainting
• Pale lower eye lid
• Pale and sore gums

Who is at risk?

Iron deficiency anaemia effects more women than man due to a monthly menstrual cycle, pregnancy and breast feeding. However, there are many factors that can increase the risk factors of anaemia in both male and female such:

• Vegetarian or vegan diet (animal sources are high in protein and iron).
• Athletes or increased exercise (damage to red blood cells).
• History of kidney failure.
• Dialysis treatment (removal of iron from the body).
• Irritable Bowel Syndrome (decreased absorption of iron).
• High intake of antacids (calcium block iron absorption).
• Calcium and zinc bind and inhibit absorption.
• Donating blood on regular basis.
• Green tea EGCG inhibits Iron absorption.
• Sufferers of Irritable Bowel Disease due to decreased absorption as well as increase loss of bleeding.

How do I know if I am anaemic?

Determining your iron levels are easy to do through a blood test and should be checked routinely if you have any of the above risk factors. Your general practitioner can test for serum ferritin (iron-storage and transferritin saturation which is the amount of iron being transported in the body.

You can also go by symptom pictures. Look into your bottom eyelid, it should be a nice red with visible capillaries. A pale lid indicates poor oxygenated blood. Other physical signs are pallor, fatigue, weakness and shortness of breath.

What is the daily recommendations for iron?

Life Stage Age Male (mg/day) Females (mg/day)
Infants 0-6 months 0.27 0.27
Infants 7-12 months 11 11
Children 1-3 years 7 7
Children 4-8 years 10 10
Children 9-13 years 8 8
Adolescents 14-18 years 11 15
Adults 19-50 years 8 18
Adults 51 years and older 8 8
Pregnancy All ages – 27
Breast feeding All ages 10

What foods can I eat to enhance iron?

There are two different forms of iron found in food sources: heme and nonheme.

In animal based foods, iron is attached to proteins called heme and is classified as a heme iron source. This includes dairy products, meat, poultry and fish. Great sources also include chicken liver, oysters, dark meats of chicken and turkey and beef liver.

In plant based foods, the iron is not bound to heme and is classified and nonheme source. Great sources of nonheme iron include legumes, almonds, beet green, swiss chard, spinach, sesame seeds and dandelion greens.
Heme iron is better absorbed in the body which is around 15-35% compared to nonheme sources sitting around 2-20%.

How to increase iron absorption?

  • Vitamin C (ascorbic acid): Vitamin C strangely enhances the absorption of nonheme iron by reducing ferric iron (fe3+) to ferrous iron (Fe2+) and forming an absorbable, iron-ascorbic acid complex.
  • Combining Iron rich foods with Vitamin C- for example having a steak and salad (iron) with asparagus, red capsicum and drizzle lemon and olive oil on top (vitamin C).
  • Avoid inhibitors of iron such as phytic acid (green tea and black tea, grains, rice, tofu, peas, peanuts), calcium and soy protein.
  • Synergistic (works together to enhance action) nutrients include B2, B12, copper, folic acid, and selenium.
  • Increase bitters before you eat like dandelion, ginger and gentian. These herbs can stimulate hydrochloric acid in your stomach to breakdown and assimilate iron.
  • Increase acidity with apple cider vinegar, lemon, lime or grapefruit juice.
  • Avoid cold drinks with meals and go for hot /warm water with some of that stuff listed above in it.
  • Vitamin B12 combines with iron haemoglobin in the blood. Natural sources of Vitamin B12 are found in beef, chicken, salmon and liver. Vegetarian sources of Vitamin B12 can be obtained in Nori sheets (sushi) or Shitake mushrooms.

What is the best Iron supplementation?

Not all iron supplements are created equal so it is always best to discuss your needs with your health care professional before supplementation.

The most common forms are:

  • Ferrous sulphate and fumarate- these are inorganic (non-haem) forms which are commonly found in generic supplements. Ferrous sulphate may cause constipation therefore trying to use food as your main source of iron is far better than this supplementation.
  • Iron Phosphate and iron amino-acid chelate are better absorbed with less burden on the gastrointestinal tract.

The best way to enhance iron absorption is to use food combining along with natural plant based multivitamin which contains Vitamin C and the synergistic vitamins and minerals can significantly improve iron deficiency. ATP’s Multifoods contains 100% organic plant based vitamins and minerals such as Vitamin C, folate and B6 to not only enhance the absorption of iron, but also improve its activity in the body for oxygenation of the blood and energy production.

What if I have too much iron?

Hereditary hemochromatosis is a disorder of iron metabolism resulting in iron accumulation in the liver, heart and other tissues. It is the most common genetic disorder in Australia, effecting about 1 in 200 people of northern European origin. It presents simular to anaemia such as fatigue, irregular heartbeat, feeling unwell but has distinctive sore joints, unexpected weight loss and erectile dysfunction. If you have a family history of hemochromatosis or signs, you can talk to your general practitioner about testing for it. Your GP can test for the amount of iron in your blood or they may decide to do genetic testing to see if you are a carrier of the gene.


Treatment is simple such blood donation at your local red cross to reduce your blood levels. You may also be recommended to reduce heme food sources such as red meats, chicken and fish and avoid foods high in vitamin C with high iron foods. It is also recommended to limit alcohol consumption to protect your liver that can become damaged when iron stores are high.

If you do have hemochromatosis and taking Multifoods, avoid taking it with foods that are rich in iron such as meat, poultry, seafood and certain vegetables. Take with foods such as smoothies, yoghurt and fruits where possible.


Full Article: 

Saunders, A et al, Iron and vegetarian diets, Medicine Journal of Australia, 2013, Vol.4
Linus Pauling Institute 2017, Micronutrient information centre: iron,
Hallberg L, The role of vitamin C and iron absorption, International Journal of Vitamin and Nutrition Research, 1989, vol. 30.
Winter W et al, The molecular biology of human iron metabolism, Laboratory Medicine, 2014, vol. 45
Zhang C, Essential functions of iron-requiring proteins in DNA replication, repair and cell cycle control, Protein Cell, 2014, vol.5
Bhaskaram, P, Immunobiology of mild micronutrient deficiencies, British Journal of Nutrition, 2001, vol.85
Semba R, Bloem M, The anemia of vitamin A deficiency: epidemiology and pathogenesis, European Journal of Clinical Nutrition, 2002, vol.56
Kelkitli E et al, Serum zinc levels in patients with iron deficiency anemia and its association with symptoms of iron deficiency anemia, Annual Haematology, 2016, vol.95
Hurrell et al, Iron bioavailability and dietary reference value, American Clinical Nutrition, 2010, vol.91
Jauregui-Lobera et, al. Iron deficiency and cognitive functions. Neuropsychiatric Disease Treatment, 2014, vol. 10.
Health Direct 2017, Haemochromatosis, Australian Government Department of Health

14 Feb 2018
14 Feb 2018


Comments| Posted in Nutrition, by David Schmitt


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IT'S AS EASY AS 1...2...3

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1 CUP OF ICE (or preferred amount)




11 Jan 2018
11 Jan 2018



2 ripe avocados, skin and stone removed
60 g (2 oz / 1/2 cup) cacao
125 ml (4 fl oz / ½ cup) organic maple syrup
125 ml (4 fl oz / 1/2 cup) coconut cream
60 ml (2 fl oz / ¼ cup) cold-pressed coconut oil
1 teaspoon vanilla bean extract
Pinch of sea salt


Combine avocado, cacao, maple syrup, coconut cream, coconut oil, vanilla and sea salt.
Blend until smooth and creamy.
Divide into serving glasses or Kliner glass serving jars.
Refrigerate for 2 – 3 hours to chill completely or enjoy immediately if you can’t wait that long.
Decorate with whipped coconut cream or mascarpone, then garnish with freeze-dried raspberries.
Enjoy the ultimate chocolate indulgence.

11 Jan 2018
11 Jan 2018

Training your weaknesses.


Step 1: Identify Your Weaknesses

Sure, this probably sounds like a no-brainer, but it’s not as easy as it might seem. Actual weaknesses are usually the easier of the two to identify. These are areas where you just stink. Like tripping over the rope repeatedly as you try to skip. Or more generally, you may struggle to break parallel and reach depth on your squat, and you have a weakness in the area of mobility.

Step 2: Pick a few to focus on

If you’re anything like me, your weakness list might be a bit long. As in 27 items long.... Yes, it can be overwhelming to look at yourself and the areas where you want to improve, but having a solid understanding of the big picture can help you to identify the baby steps you’re going to need take to get there.

Step 3: Set Goals

Setup S.M.A.R.T goals. Goal setting is a bit of an art in and of itself, but setting achievable goals is an important step in improving your weaknesses. 

Step 4: Create your plan

Now that you know you’re weaknesses, have chosen which to work on, and set goals around those areas for improvement, it’s time to formulate your plan.

Step 5: Get ‘er done!

You’ve laid all the ground work, and now it’s time to put your head down and do work! This should be the part of the process that is the most fun. Remember, show up every day.

Step 6: Retest and reassess

Once you’ve completed your goals and plan, the time is finally here to see how far you’ve come. Retest yourself and your weaknesses then reassess your next steps.


11 Jan 2018
11 Jan 2018



We give six typical resolutions a massage.


We all know New Year’s resolutions have a bad rep, with less than half of us sticking to our promises by the time June hits. Despite our good intentions, the main problem is we’ve usually made grandiose commitments that are too vague, ill-informed or difficult to stick to beyond the first week of January (sound familiar?). But this isn’t a reason to give up on yourself: the following resolutions are so simple, you’ll be set to slay your health goals in 2018.

Old resolution: “I want to stop [insert bad habit here]”
Why it doesn’t work: If you’ve been trying to kick a certain habit for years, but haven’t, it’s likely because you’re trying without any awareness.
New resolution: “I’ll practise 10 minutes of mindfulness daily”

“In order to break a habit, you have to first be aware that it is happening. Mindfulness allows us to be present with what is happening in any given moment, so we can choose our actions and break our habitual patterns,” psychologist Mary Hoang from The Indigo Project says. “Create a habit of sitting quietly for five minutes in the morning and five minutes before you go to bed. Try ‘Mindfulness of breath’, a simple technique that involves focusing your attention on the sensation of the breath as it enters and exits the nostrils, or use apps such as Headspace or Smiling Mind if you need some guidance.”

Old resolution: “I’m going to drink veg juices every day to lose weight”
Why it doesn’t work: Juices are filled with extra kJs, contain little fibre and don’t keep you satisfied, meaning you’re likely to eat more to compensate (and hence, put on weight).
New resolution: “I’m going to eat fruit and veg whole”

“While it’s fun for hardcore health-foodies to down greens via a straw, most of the palatable juices available simply contain too much fruit in one go. This can be hard on the digestive system to process and can result in abdominal pain and bloating,” dietitian and nutritionist Larina Robinsonsays. “Stick to eating your fruit and vegetables whole instead, so you get all their filling fibre, and less of the sugar rush.”

Old resolution: “I’m going to sleep more and stress less”
Why it doesn’t work: When life gets busy, it’s easy to prioritise work and going out over sleep, both of which end up increasing your stress levels.
Replace it with: “I’m setting a daily reminder to be grateful”

“Research shows that having a gratitude practice can increase sleep quality by 25 per cent, plus lower stress-related illnesses by 10 per cent and increase positive emotions and productivity,” Mary says. “The act of practising gratitude also releases dopamine and serotonin into the brain, which has the same effect as taking an antidepressant.”

Old resolution: “I’m going to exercise like an animal to get better results”
Why it doesn’t work: After those first few intense sessions at the gym, you’re in so much pain you couldn’t be bothered going back (Netflix and the couch are less torturous).
New resolution: “I’m going to treat my workouts as moving meditation”

“When you exercise, are you really focusing on what your body is doing or are you miles away thinking about trivial things?” asks Darren Cox, functional wellness practitioner at Total Reformation. “If there’s one time in your life when you should be 100 per cent focused on your body, it’s when you’re exercising (especially if you’re doing weights or high-intensity interval training). When you break the habit of using exercise as a ‘disconnect’ from reality, your results will come sooner and you’ll become more competent in moving well and pain-free.”

Old resolution: “I’m going to be happier”
Why it doesn’t work: This statement is so vague that you’re setting yourself up for failure. What does it mean to be happier anyway?
New resolution: “I’m going to schedule weekly catch-ups with loved ones”

Mary says, “If you want to be happier and healthier in the coming year, invest in close, positive relationships. Research shows having someone to lean on helps with emotional, and even physical, pain. Set aside time every week to foster your most important relationships, and allow space to debrief emotionally. What’s important is not the number of friends you have, but the quality of your close relationships.”

Old resolution: “I’m going to start following [insert new healthy diet trend here]”
Why it doesn’t work: Most new diet trends are usually complicated and so strict (or bland), you’ll be bored after a few days. If you want to eat healthily, it’s actually really simple.
New resolution: “I’m going to fill half my lunch and dinner plates with colourful vegetables”

“Think zucchini, tomato, carrot, pumpkin, broccoli, cauliflower. The more colour you add, the more variety you’re enjoying, and according to research, you’ll likely live longer,” Larina says. “Plus, they contain water and fibre for a happy digestive system, and thanks to their different colours, are loaded with a variety of antioxidants to fight premature ageing and free radical damage.”





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04 Dec 2017
04 Dec 2017



• 6 eggs

• 4 Tablespoons of milk

• 1 garlic clove, minced

• 1 cup of red peppers, diced

• ¼ cup of sun dried tomatoes

• 5 Tablespoons of olive slices

• 1 teaspoon of dry parsley

• ¼ teaspoon of freshly ground black pepper

• ¼ teaspoon of Himalayan salt

• 2 Tablespoons of goat cheese crumbles

• 3 Tablespoons of Parmesan cheese, freshly grated

• ¼ cup of walnut pieces or pine nuts

• 3-4 gluten-free tortillas

• chives (optional)


1. Preheat the oven to 350 degrees F. Spray a silicone muffin pan with cooking spray.

2. Cut out 12 circles of the tortillas using a circle cookie cutter. Place each one of the cut-out tortillas at the base of the muffin pan.

3. Beat the eggs and milk together in a large bowl and stir in the garlic, red peppers, sun dried tomatoes, olive slices, parsley, pepper, salt, nuts, goat cheese, and Parmesan cheese.

4. Pour the egg mixture into the muffin pans filling them about ¾ the way full. Bake for 15-20 minutes.

Let set about 5 minutes before serving.

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